Abstract: Thirty one species including 5 undescribed ones of the aphid genus Cinara are listed as occurring in Japan. Notes are given on these species as well as to the synomymous names recorded under the genus in Japan. Keys to the species are given for both apterous and alate viviparous females.
Cinara is an aphid genus associated solely with coniferous trees. It consists of about 200 described species in the world, and their identification is often difficult due to the close similarities among species. Inouye (1970) revised 24 Japanese species and subspecies of Cinara and provided a key to the apterae. The key has been difficult to use in some places because it relied on the extent of pigmentation and the variation within species was probably underestimated. Another 7 species from Japan have subsequently been seen. New keys have been constructed to these 31 species including 5 undescribed ones, both for apterae and for the alatae which were not previously keyed.
There are still many uncertainties concerning the Japanese fauna. Many of the species described or recorded from Japan are similar to but slightly different from specimens of species described from Europe. In many cases only a few samples are known from one or other, or both localities and the full extent of the morphological variation within each taxon is unknown. More samples from Europe, Japan and the intervening areas are needed to resolve these problems, and cytological and molecular techniques will probably also be needed to establish meaningful relationships between the samples. Nevertheless it is thought that the following keys provide a better basis for identifying Japanese Cinara than was previously available.
We wish to express our sincere thanks to Prof. M. Suwa and Assoc. Prof. S. Akimoto of the Hokkaido University, Sapporo, for their kind co-operation in various ways during this study. Dr. Akimoto prepared the photographs in the plates for this study. Thanks are also due to Drs. K. Fukuyama and K. Ozaki of the Hokkaido Branch, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Sapporo, for their kind help in examining the Inouye's aphid collection preserved in the Branch. This study was partly supported by a grant-in-aid (No. RC10514) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science .