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Details of data
Country or region name   Philippines
Organism group   insect
Order name   Hemiptera
Family name   Pentatomidae
Species name   Scotinophara coarctata
English common name   rice black bug, RBB
Substantially same species (synonym)  
Year of invasion or detection   1979
Native region   Southeast Asian and South Asia
Situation of establishment   Category 4: Settled after 1951, but not distributed all over the country
Taxonomic description
 
Expansion of distribution area
  The rice black bug (RBB) occurs in Asian countries such as South China, Vietnam, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan (Reissig et al., 1986; Subramanian et al., 1986; Singh & Singh, 1987; Ferrer & Shepard, 1987; Ito et al., 1993; CABI, 2001; Rice IPM CD, 2001). It has been a pest of rice in Malaysia for so many years (Corbett & Yusope, 1924; Grist & Lever, 1969; Van Vreden & Ahmadzabidi, 1986).

In the Philippines, six Scotinophara species have been reported: S. cinerea Le Guillou (Hasegawa, 1971), S. ochracea (Distant) and S. lurida (Burmeister) (Wogsiri, 1975), S. latiuscula Breddin, S. serrata (Vollenhoven), and S. tarsalis (Vollenhoven) (Miyamoto et al., 1983). None of these species were reported as a rice pest.

The first reported incidence of RBB in the Philippines was in Bonobono, Bataraza, in southern Palawan in September 1979 (Miyamoto et al., 1983). Since then, the outbreak of the pest on rice and swarming of adults around illuminations at night were reported from south to north of the island (de Sagun et al., 1991).

Since RBB has never been found in the islands of the Philippines other than Palawan before 1982, it is likely that RBB had been biogeographically none associated to landmasses west of the Wallace's Line. Being weak fliers, and the generally prevailing winds are east west, they could not have emigrated by flight or displaced by wind; like the brown planthopper. It is likely that RBB invaded Mindanao through insects swarming on boats that operate from Borneo Island or Palawan Island.

RBB inhabits both rainfed and irrigated wetland environments and is not common in upland rice ecosystems (Reissig et al., 1986). During the rainy season, the populations that transfer to the rice plant may also originate from wooded areas (CABI, 2001). It is attracted to high-intensity light and produces an offensive odor when disturbed (CABI, 2001; Rice IPM CD, 2001). RBB is a weak flier. Its adult flies to the rice crop to reproduce over several generations when weather conditions are favourable. It returns to its resting sites after crop harvests. It is capable of migrating long distances by ships and other means of transportation (CABI, 2001). Its flight activity is affected by the lunar cycle (PhilRice, 2000). The availability and quality of food also affects its flight activity. Its flight activity increases when there is no food. There is less migration and dispersal if rice plants are readily available as food in the field (PhilRice, 2000).

In 1980, RBB infestations were observed southern Palawan (Mochida, et al., 1986). There was a major outbreak from March to June 1982, which later spread toward central up to northern Palawan (Miyamoto, et al., 1983, Villareal, personal communication). Ten years later, RBB infestation was observed in Curuan, Zamboanga City of Western Mindanao in late June 1992. In the late 1998, the pest was spotted in the Visayas region, particularly in Kabankan, Negros Occidental. In 2001, the pest was observed in Leyte (Mandras, personal communication). It moved from southern part to western part of Leyte. It was believed to have originated from Mindanao. The spread of RBB in the Philippines is reviewed in a table by Catindig and Heong (2003) (PDF).

It was believed that the spread of RBB was due to frequent boat transportation between islands, the plain cultivation of wetland habitats and host plants and perhaps the lack of indigenous natural enemies.

Environmental impact
 
Economic damage
  Rice is the main host. It also feeds on a number of grasses and broadleaves (Mochida et al., 1982; IRRI Reporter, 1983; Miyamoto et al., 1983; PhilRice, 2000; Catindig and Heong, 2003 (PDF)). A number of infestations and outbreaks of the RBB have been recorded. For example, 1,246 ha of rice fields in 4 municipalties in Palawan were damaged in 1982 (Perez, 1989). In this year, at the height of the RBB infestation, the Provincial Government formed the Task Force Black Bug and spent US $ 20,000 for chemicals against RBB (Barrion et al., 1982). A major outbreak in 1985 spread towards the central and northern Palawan covering 4,500 ha of rice lands (Barrion et al., 1982). In Mindanao, it attacked 2,070 ha of rice lands affecting 2,430 farmers who suffered a production loss estimated at 2.2 million in 1992 (Fernandez, 1993) and 10,000 ha of ricelands in 1995 (Apao et al., 1998). In the Visayas, the RBB hit about 6,202 ha of rice fields in Leyte provinces in 2000 (Tempo, 2004).

Locally known as 'itim na atangya', RBB attacks almost all the stages of the rice crop, particularly from maximum tillering to ripening (Reissig et al., 1986; PhilRice, 2000). The nymphs are destructive as it can feed at the basal part of the rice crop for up to 42 days (Simbajon, 1992). The insects prefer stem nodes or the base of the stem as feeding sites because of the large sap reservoirs (Corbett & Yusope, 1924; Reissig et al., 1986). Feeding by large number of bugs can cause plants to be stunted and the leaves turn reddish brown, a condition called 'bug burn'. The area around a feeding site turns brown with dark brown margins that resemble a blast lesion (IRRI, 1983; Lim, 1975).

Reproduction
  The adult of RBB is oval-shaped and about 8-9 mm long. It lives from 3 to 7 months. The female lays about 200 eggs during her lifetime and guards the egg until hatching (Reissig et al., 1986). It deposits its eggs on the lower part of the leaves or on the basal part of the rice plant near the water surface (PhilRice, 2000). The eggs are laid in masses of 40-60 individual eggs in several parallel rows. During dry conditions, the female bug deposits its eggs on the leaves and stem. Eggs are also laid in cracks on the soil and on roots (Rice IPM CD, 2001).
Growth
  Freshly laid eggs are greenish and turn pink with age. Egg incubation of RBB is 3 to 7 days. The nymphs are brown and yellow with black markings (Reissig et al., 1986). Six nymphal instars are completed in 29-35 days.

Like the adults, the nymphs have similar behavior of remaining in the base of the plant during the day and feeding at night. The nymphs reached adulthood after 4 to 5 molts in 25-30 days.

Countermeasure
  The best management option for RBB is the possible use of classical biological control. Perez et al., (1989, 1995) recorded the presence of an important egg parasitoid Telenomus triptus in Palawan and T. cyrus in Malaysia (Chang et al., (1991). The egg parasitoid T. cyrus is apparently not found attacking Scotinophara species in the Philippines. There are other natural enemies that might be of significance.
Writer's name and affiliation
  Josie Lynn A. Catindig and Kong Luen Heong, International Rice Research Institute (Written in January 2005)

Similar species : 1
Organism group   insect
Order name   Hemiptera
Family name   Pentatomidae
Species name   Scotinophara lurida
English common name   rice black bug
Substantially same species (synonym)  
Possibility of producing hybrids   Unknown
Details  

Host species : 13
Organism group   plant
Order name   Graminales
Family name   Gramineae
Species name   Oryza sativae
English common name   Rice
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Arales
Family name   Araceae
Species name   Colocasia esculenta
English common name   taro
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Cyperales
Family name   Cyperaceae
Species name   Scleria sumatrensis
English common name   *
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Cyperales
Family name   Cyperaceae
Species name   Scirpus grossus
English common name   *
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Rosales
Family name   Leguminosae
Species name   Vigna unguiculata
English common name   Cowpea, Asparagus bean
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Malvales
Family name   Malvaceae
Species name   Hibiscus esculentus
English common name   Okura
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Graminales
Family name   Gramineae
Species name   Brachiaria mutica
English common name   Paragrass, water grass, giant couch
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Graminales
Family name   Gramineae
Species name   Echinochloa crusgalli
English common name   Japanese millet, Barnyard grass
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Graminales
Family name   Poaceae
Species name   Panicum amplexicaule
English common name   *
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Graminales
Family name   Poaceae
Species name   Panicum myurus
English common name   *
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Graminales
Family name   Gramineae
Species name   Zea mays
English common name   Maize, Corn, Indian corn
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Graminales
Family name   Poaceae
Species name   Hymenachne pseudointerrupta
English common name   *
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Organism group   plant
Order name   Typhales
Family name   Typhaceae
Species name   Typha angustifolia
English common name   narrowleaf cattail
Substantially same species (synonym)  

Photos of alien and similar species and damage : 5
No. Kind of Photo Photo Name of copyright holder and explanation of photo
1 Alien species sc1   © IRRI. An adult of the rice black bug and egg mass.
2 Alien species sc2   © Villareal (IRRI), Adults and nymphs of RBB.
3 Alien species sc3   © Villareal (IRRI), Fluorescent light to collect RBB.
4 Alien species sc4   © Villareal (IRRI), RBB attracted to fluorescent light are collected using a big net.
5 Damage sc5   © Villareal (IRRI), Bug burn field caused by RBB.

Reference : 25
1   Author   Apao ER, Lulu AA, Sambulan FS, Esturas AC, Sobredo TN, Araya JP.
Year   1998
Title   Integrated control strategies for the rice black bug (Scotinophara coarctata) in western Mindanao.
Magazine   PhilRice Technical Bulletin
Volume   3
Number  
Page   49-54
Summary  
Key Word   Scotinophara coarctata, MIndanao, rice black bug, control
PDF  

2   Author   Barrion AT, Mochida O, Litsinger JA.
Year   1982
Title   The Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata (F.) (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae): a new rice pest in the Philippines.
Magazine   Int. Rice Res. Newsl.
Volume   7
Number  
Page   6-7
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

3   Author   Catindig, J.L.A. amd Heong, K.L.
Year   2003
Title   The rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata (Fabricius)(Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) - its spread and management in the Philippines.
Magazine   Proceedings of International Seminar on Biological Invasions
Volume   Environmental Impacts and the Development of a Database for the Asian-Pacific Region. Tsukuba, Japan.
Number   Eds. M. Oka, M. Matsui, T. Shiomi, Y. Ogawa and K. Tsuchiya
Page   45-55.
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata, spread, management
PDF  

4   Author   Chang P, Ito K, Salleh NMNB.
Year   1991
Title   Migration and management of the Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata (Fabricius) (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae), in Kerian, Malaysia.
Magazine   Proceedings of International Seminar on Migration aand Dispersal of Agricultural Insects. Tsukuba Japan.
Volume  
Number  
Page   pp. 229-245
Summary  
Key Word   Malayan black bug, migration, management, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

5   Author   Corbett GH, Yusope M.
Year   1924
Title   Scotinophara coarctata (F.). (The black bug of padi).
Magazine   The Malayan Agricultural Journal
Volume   12
Number  
Page   91-106
Summary  
Key Word   Scotinophara coarctata, black bug
PDF  

6   Author   De Sagun S, Mochida O, Parducho M.
Year   1991
Title   The occurrence and migration of the Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata (Fabricius) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae), in Palawan island, the Philippines.
Magazine   Proceedings of International Seminar on Migration and Dispersal of Agricultural Insects, Tsukuba, Japan.
Volume  
Number  
Page   247-256
Summary  
Key Word   Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata, migration
PDF  

7   Author   Estoy AB, Batay-an EH, Soria PA, Amar GB.
Year   1999
Title   Metarhizium anisopliae: microbial control agent against the rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata Fabr.
Magazine   PhilRice Technical Bulletin
Volume   4
Number  
Page   14-17
Summary  
Key Word   microbial control, rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

8   Author   Fernandez RA.
Year   1993
Title   Rice black bug ravaging crops in Western Mindanao.
Magazine   PhilRice Newsletter
Volume   6
Number   4
Page   5
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Mindanao, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

9   Author   Ferrer ER, Shepard BM.
Year   1987
Title   Sampling Malayan black bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in rice.
Magazine   Environ. Entomol.
Volume   16
Number   1
Page   259-263
Summary  
Key Word   Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

10   Author   Grist DH, Lever RJAW.
Year   1969
Title   Pests of rice.
Magazine   London:Longmans.
Volume  
Number  
Page   520 p.
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

11   Author   IRRI.
Year   1983
Title   Black bug threatens rice in Palawan.
Magazine   IRRI Reporter
Volume   83
Number  
Page   1-2
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

12   Author   Ito K, Sugiyama H, Nik MohdNoor NS, Min CP.
Year   1993
Title   Effects of lunar phase on light trap catches of the Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).
Magazine   Bulletin of Entomological Research
Volume   83
Number   1
Page   59-66
Summary  
Key Word   Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctta, light trap, lunar
PDF  

13   Author   Miyamoto S, Torres NA, Habibuddin BH, Montri R, Fujimura T, Thieng P, Mochida O.
Year   1983
Title   Emerging problems of pests and diseases – the black bug in southeast Asia.
Magazine   The International Rice Research Conference, IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
Volume  
Number  
Page   33p.
Summary  
Key Word   black bug, southeast Asia
PDF  

14   Author   Mochida O, Barrion AT, de la Cruz N. 31 p. (Mimeographed).
Year   1982
Title   A trip report on the black bug problem on rice in Palawan, Philippines.
Magazine   International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
Volume  
Number  
Page   31p. (Mimeographed)
Summary  
Key Word   black bug
PDF  

15   Author   Mochida O, Parducho MA, Gapasin D.
Year   1986
Title   Economic injury levels of the black bug, Scotinophara coarctata (Fabricius) (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae) on rice plants in Palawan.
Magazine   The annual meeting of the Pest Control Council of the Philippines, Iloilo City.
Volume  
Number  
Page  
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

16   Author   Perez VA, Shepard BM, Arida GS.
Year   1989
Title   Indigenous natural enemies of the Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata (Fab.) in Palawan Island, Philippines.
Magazine   Philipp. Entomol.
Volume   7
Number   5
Page   485-490
Summary  
Key Word   Malayan black bug, Scotinophara coarctata, natural enemy
PDF  

17   Author   Perez VA, Shepard BM.
Year   1995
Title   Mass production of Scotinophara coarctata Fab. Eggs for mass rearing Telenomus triptus (Nixon) parasitoid.
Magazine   Ann. Trop. Res.
Volume   14
Number  
Page   42-47
Summary  
Key Word   Scotinophara coarctata, Telenomus triptus, parasitoid
PDF  

18   Author   Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice).
Year   2000
Title   Management of the rice black bug.
Magazine   Rice Technology (Department of Agriculture-PhilRice. Maligaya Muñoz, Nueva Ecija.)
Volume   31
Number  
Page   12 p.
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, management,
PDF  

19   Author   Reissig WH, Heinrichs EA, Litsinger JA, Moody K, Fiedler L, Mew TW, Barrion AT.
Year   1986
Title   Illustrated guide to integrated pest management in rice in tropical Asia.
Magazine   International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
Volume  
Number  
Page   411 p.
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

20   Author   Rice IPM CD.
Year   2001
Title   Centre for Pest Information Technology and Transfer (CPITT),
Magazine   University of Queensland: Australia and The International Rice Research Institute, Manila: Philippines.
Volume  
Number  
Page  
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

21   Author   Simbajon, S.
Year   1992
Title   Rice black bug situation in Region 9.
Magazine   -
Volume  
Number  
Page  
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

22   Author   Singh MP, Singh NI.
Year   1987
Title   First recorded incidence of rice bugs in Manipur, India.
Magazine   International Rice Research Newsletter
Volume   12
Number   3
Page   35
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

23   Author   Subramanian A, Murugesan S, Rajendran R, Babu PCS.
Year   1986
Title   Occurrence and control of rice black bug at Coimbatoire.
Magazine   International Rice Research Newsletter
Volume   11
Number   3
Page   24
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

24   Author   Tempo.
Year   2004
Title   Villar warns of black plague in Eastern Visayas.
Magazine   -
Volume  
Number  
Page   5
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

25   Author   Van Vreden G, Ahmadzabidi AL.
Year   1986
Title   Pest of rice and their natural enemies in Peninsular Malaysia.
Magazine   Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation (Pudoc),
Volume   Wageningen: Netherlands.
Number  
Page   230 p.
Summary  
Key Word   rice black bug, Scotinophara coarctata
PDF  

Habitat : 1
No. Habitat
1   paddy field

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