The Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO (NIAS) focuses on understanding the biological phenomena of agriculturally important plants, insects, microbes and animals to create innovative technologies, and eventually contribute to the solution of global issues such as food shortage due to rapid population growth and environmental problems due to climate change. NIAS is doing research and development to create new industries and new demands in the field of agricultural and medicinal industries by applying genetic engineering technologies to plants, insects and animals. In plants, for example, we are developing new rice varieties resistant to major diseases including blast. Moreover, we will include non-clinical and clinical research trials of rice-based edible vaccines for curing cedar pollinosis. In insects, we are developing medicinal materials from silk protein and medicines for humans and animals using transgenic silkworm. Furthermore, we are developing transgenic pigs to produce immune-deficit pigs and animal models for human diseases.
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO (NIAS) in collaboration with Ehime University have developed a new genome editing technology for rice that enables base substitution from adenine (A) to guanine (G) with extended target range. A new ABEs (nSpCas9‐NGv1) using SpCas9‐NGv1 that have NG as protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) was developed and has successfully induced A-G base substitutions in endogenous sites of the rice genome. In the future, application of this technology will be verified for plants other than rice. The research results are now available in the online version of the international journal "Plant Biotechnology Journal" published as Early View on May 1, 2019. Read more
The National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), has discovered that by the application of natural substance namely Loliolide to crops such as tomato, the damage caused by the important pests such as western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) could be suppressed. Loliolide doesn't has direct insecticidal effect, but it reduces the pest damage by means of enhancing the pest resistance in tomatoes etc. It is a promising material for pest control agents that utilizing the pest resistance of crops.Read more
NARO in collaboration with a private company, have succeeded in collecting straight and long fiber of bagworm silk last year. Bagworm silk is found to be superior to spider silk, which was earlier said to be the strongest in naturally produced fibers, in aspects such as elasticity, fracture strength, and toughness. Hence bagworm silk is expected to its used as a new industrial fiber. In order to elucidate the strength mechanism of the bagworm silk, NARO and Toyota Institute of Technology have elaborately investigated the primary structure, secondary structure, and higher-order structure of silk proteins that are components of the bagworm silk. It was evident from the study that the strength of the bagworm silk was due to the highly ordered hierarchical structure of silk proteins. Read more
The Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, NARO (NILGS) and Institute of Agro-biological Science (NIAS), in collaboration with the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Kyoto Sangyou University, has succeeded in deciphering the full genome sequence of the Japanese honey bee. Japanese honey bee has many useful properties including strong disease resistance as compared to the Western honey bee. Disease resistance of both honey bees can be analyzed at the genetic level by means of comparing the genome of the decoded Japanese honey bee with that of Western honey bee. This result will contribute to the development of more useful technologies for utilization of honey bees.Read more